Monday, 26 October 2020




Plumbing notes based on SP-35 1987 are as follows :- 

 1. General 

  •  Plumbing System includes 
    • water supply and distributing pipes 
    • plumbing fixtures for the use in water supply
    • sanitary drainage system to carry the wastes 
    • Anti-siphonage system which carry only the air for the purpose of ventilation  
    • Storm water drainage system to collect and carry rain water 
  • Planning for Plumbing
    • The layout of the building should be such as to allow for good and economical plumbing to be carried out.   
    • Cross connection between water supply and waste water pipes should be avoided. 
    • Noise associated with Plumbing system (Water Pumps) should be kept in mind. 
    • When a water pipe is to be concealed, it must be wrapped with Hassian cloth dipped in bitumen. Hassian Cloth can be seen in the picture given below :- 
      • Single Pipe system is now generally preferred over two pipe systems. 
      • Indian Standards should be adopted while selecting materials, equipment, construction or testing the fixtures so that uniformity can be maintained. 


      Principles of Plumbing. 

      1. Plumbing Fixtures should be smooth and non absorbent, well ventilated, away from fouling places, easily accessible, leak free. 
      2. Plumbing system should help in using the water economically, should avoid cross connection of water and sewerage line, well ventilated and well designed.


      Thank you. 


      Further Read in this Series :- 








Sunday, 3 May 2020

Principle of Effective Stress, Capillarity and Permeability

Principle of Effective Stress, Capillarity and Permeability


Total Stress = Sum of all the stresses above a point. 

Neutral Stress = Hydrostatic Pressure above a point. 

Effective Stress = Total Stress - Neutral Stress

Few Numerical are given below based on these concepts. 

Numerical 1 :- 

Numerical 2 :- 

In respect of these two numerical, it can be understood that, 

1. A rise in water table results in the decrease of effective stress. 

2.  Lowering of water table results in increase of effective stress. 

Thursday, 26 March 2020

Classification of Soil (Numerical)


1. Numerical of Gopal Ranjan and AS RAO Book.

Given Details as shown below in the numerical. We need to classify the soil as per indian Standard.

Sieve Size (mm)Percent Finer
Sample 1Sample 2Sample 3
IP6.23Non PlasticNon Plastic

Sample 1. 

A. Look at the % finer in 0.075 mm sieve (75 micron sieve) 

      Which in this case is 96.85 (marked Red) As this fraction is greater than  50 % so soil is fine grained soil and we need to look in to Liquid Limit and Plastic Limit of the soil sample. 

B. Liquid limit and Plastic limits are given. 
          wp = 16.77 
          Plasticity Index = 6.23 (Given) 

In the plasticity chart the Liquid Limit and Plasticity Index will be plotted somewhere marked hatched in the image. 

So for the Sample Dual Symbol will be used. 

Sample will therefore will be classified as CL-ML. 

Sample 2 

A. % Finer of 75 micron sieve Size is 6.00 which is less than 50 %. Hence sample will be coarse grained soil. 

B. % finer than 4.75 mm is 100.00 (Given) which is greater than 50 %. Hence sample will be sand. 

C. Now we need to look in to the Grain Size Curve.

Grain Size Curve is as Follows :-

It can be easily observed from the Grain Size Distribution Curve that 

for Sample 2 :- 
 D60 = 0.22 mm. D30 = 0.19 mm, D10 = 0.16 mm

Cu = D60/D10 = 0.22/0.16 = 1.38. (Which is less than 06. 

Cc = (D30*D30)/(D60*D10) = (0.19*0.19)/(0.22*0.16)= 1.03 

For a soil to be well graded Cu > 6 & 1<Cc<3. Both these two conditions should satisfy simultaneously. 

so First Part is SP. 

Also % Finer passing 75 micron is 6 % which lies between 5% and 12 %. However it is also given that fines are Non Plastic. SM will be the classification. 

Hence Sample 2 will be SP-SM. 

Sample 3 

Step 1. More than 50 5 of soil is passing through 75 micron sieve. (63 % Given). Soil is either clay or silt. 

Step 2. Liquid Limit and Plastic Limit is not Given and soil has been described as Non Plastic. So Classification will be termed as ML

Click here For Another Numerical based on Soil Classification. 

Classification of Soil.

Classification of Soil

Step A . Pass Soil sample through 75 micron sieve

More than 50 % soil sample retained : Coarse Grained Soil.

More than 50 % soil sample passing : Fine Grained Soil.

Step B. For Coarse Grained Soil.

) Pass the soil (retained on 75 micron sieve) through 4.75 mm sieve

More than 50 % soil sample retained : Gravel (G)

More than 50 % soil sample passing : Sand (S)

ii) Check the percent fines in the coarse fraction.

If Fines < 5 % -> Check Uniformity Coefficient and Coefficient of Curvature

Soil will termed as Poorly Graded and Well Graded.


If Fines > 12 % -> Check the nature of Fines from A -Line as Given below.

Step C. For Fine Grained Soil

i) Check the Clayey Fraction and Silt Fraction based on the Grain Size. Assign the 

Prefix C and M Accordingly.

ii) Using Atterberg Limits, Arrive at the Suffix, L, I, H and accordingly assign the 


This more or less completes the classification part of the soil. Now We will move towards 

Wednesday, 5 February 2020

What is the difference between Marble and Granite ?

What is the difference between Marble and Granite ?

All the site Engineers use to face the same question during the construction phase. Here we will try to give few points of difference between marble and granite. 

Point No. 01 :- 

Granite is a silicious rock which implies that silica predominates in this stone. 
Marble is a Calcareous Rock which implies that Calcium Carbonate predominates in this stone.

Point No. 02 :- 

Granite due to its chemical composition is not affected by the process of weathering.  
Marble however is not that durable. Due to presence of Calcium Carbonate its durability depends on the surrounding environment. For example Taj Mahal in Agra is made up of White Stones which are believed to be deteriorating due to pollution. 

Point No. 03 :- 

Granite is more strong. Compressive strength of Granite varies from 75 N/mm2 to        127 N/mm2. 
Marble is comparatively less stronger. Its compressive strength is around 71 N/mm2. 

Point No. 04 :- 

Carving (नक्कासी ) is difficult in case of granite and the reason can be better understand in relation with the Point No. 03 Above. 
Carving is easy in case of Marble.  Probably this is the reason of choosing Marble in Historic Structures. 

Point No. 05 :- 

in Terms of Origin, Granite is an Igneous Rock. 

Marble is a Metamorphic Rock.

Point No 06 :- 

In General, Granite is more costly compared to Marble. 

These are the basic differences between Granite and Marble.

If you have any query related to this Topic feel Free to ask in the comment section below.

Thank you.

Click Here to read about other topics related to Building Material and Construction. 

Wednesday, 22 January 2020




(a) Geo-technical Engineering : Soil exploration - planning & methods, Properties of soil, classification, various tests and inter-relationships; Permeability & Seepage, Compressibility, consolidation and Shearing resistance, Earth pressure theories and stress distribution in soil; Properties and uses of geo-synthetics.
(b) Foundation Engineering: Types of foundations & selection criteria, bearing capacity, settlement analysis, design and testing of shallow & deep foundations; Slope stability analysis, Earthen embankments, Dams and Earth retaining structures: types, analysis and design, Principles of ground modifications.

Click on the link below for further information about the topics : 
  1. Soil Exploration 
  2. Properties of Soil 
  3. Soil Classification 
  4. Permeability and Seepage
  5. Compressibility
  6. Consolidation and Shearing Resistance. 
  7. Earth Pressure
  8. Geo Synthetics. 
  9. Foundation Engineering
  10. Earth Retaining Structures. 
  11. Ground Modification

Happy Reading

Please share your feedback and queries by commenting in the comment box below. 



IES Syllabus 

Stone, Lime, Glass, Plastics, Steel, FRP, Ceramics, Aluminum, Fly Ash, Basic Admixtures, Timber, Bricks and Aggregates: Classification, properties and selection criteria;Cement: Types, Composition, Properties, Uses, Specifications and various Tests; Lime & Cement Mortars and Concrete: Properties and various Tests; Design of Concrete Mixes: Proportioning of aggregates and methods of mix design.

Click on the Topics Given below for further information :- 

  1. Lime
  2. Stone
  3. Glass
  4. Plastics
  5. Steel
  6. FRP
  7. Ceramics
  8. Aluminium
  9. Fly Ash
  10. Basic Admixtures
  11. Timber
  12. Bricks
  13. Aggregates
  14. Cement
  15. Mortar
  16. Concrete
  17. What is the difference between Marble and Granite ?

Happy Reading. 

Please Share your feedback and queries in comment section below. 

Saturday, 2 February 2019

कृषि आर्थिक सहायता

क़ृषि आर्थिक सहायता।

कृषि आर्थिक सहायता के बारे में कुछ बिंदु निम्नवत हैं।

1. भारत मे 2018-19 में सरकार द्वारा विभिन्न मदों जैसे कि MSP के रेट पर खरीददारी करने , फ़र्टिलाइज़र पर सब्सिडी देने, कर्ज माफ करने में लगभग 2.56 लाख करोड़ रुपये खर्च किये गए। यह संख्या 2019-20 में लगभग 2.7 लाकरोड़ होने का अनुमान है

2. अगर कुल खेती योग्य भूमि के हिसाब से देखा जाए तो यह लगभग 19800 रुपये प्रति हेक्टेयर या प्रति 17 बीघा आता है। इसमें अगर हाल ही में बताए गए मझोले किसानों को दिए जाने वाले 6000 रुपये और जोड़ दिए जाएं तो यह लगभग 25800 प्रति हेक्टेयर या प्रति 17 बीघा हो जाती है।

3. किसान को दिए जाने वाले कर्ज का फायदा भी कोई और ही ले रहा है। 10.78 लाख का लोन RBI के हिसाब से 2016-17 में दिया गया था। ज्ञात हो कि यह लोन 4 प्रतिशकी दर से दिया जाता है वहीं पर आप दूसरे किसी तरह के लोन लेंगे तो वो 8 प्रतिशसे लेकर 15 प्रतिशकी दर पर दिए जाते हैं।

कुल लोग जिन्होंने लोन लिया था उनमे से केवल 40 प्रतिशत लोगों ने ही 2 लाख रुपये से कम का लोन लिया था।

13 प्रतिशत लोग ऐसे हैं जिन्होंने 1 करोड़ से अधिक का लोन लिया था।

ऊपर के 210 लोग ऐसे भी हैं जिन्होंने 100 करोड़ से ऊपर का लोन लिया हुआ है। ये लोग वेयरहाउस, कोल्ड स्टोरज इत्यादि के मालिक हैं। खेती सम्बन्धी लोन से सबसे ज्यादा कमाई तो यही लोग कर रहे है जो खेती से जुड़े किसी उद्योग में लगे हुए हैं।

अपने विचार नीचे दिए गए कॉमेंट बॉक्स मे लिखें।

कृषकों के लिए बजट २०१९ में क्या है ?

कृषकों के लिए बजट  २०१९ में क्या है ?

हाल ही में सदन में पेश किये गए बजट में छोटे किसानों एवं भूमिहीन  मज़दूरों के लिए किये गए प्रावधान निम्नवत हैं -

१. ऐसे किसान परिवार जिनके पास कृषि योग्य भूमि २ एकड़ से कम है, इन परिवारों को सालाना ६००० रुपये की आर्थिक मदद सरकार द्वारा सीधे उनके बैंक खातों में की जाएगी। इस स्कीम के तहत सरकार को लगभग ७५००० करोड़ का  अतिरिक्त भार वहन करना पड़ेगा। चालू वर्ष में स्कीम के लिए  २०००० करोड़ रुपये सरकार दे रही है, क्योंकि स्कीम को १ दिसंबर २०१८ से लागू किया जाना सुनिश्चित हुआ है। देश भर में लगभग १२ करोड़ परिवारों को इस स्कीम से मदद मिलेगी। 
हेक्टेयर, एकड़ एवं बीघा में सम्बन्ध देखने के लिए आप नीचे दी गयी तालिका की मदद ले सकते हैं।  

 १ हेक्टेयर 
 एकड़ 2.47 
 १ एकड़ 
 लगभग ४०४७ वर्गमीटर 
 पश्चिमी उत्तरप्रदेश का १ बीघा 
 लगभग ६९० वर्ग मीटर 
 २ हेक्टेयर 
 लगभग ३४ से ३५ बीघा 

अर्थात ऐसे परिवार जिनके पास ३३ से ३४ बीघा या उससे कम खेती योग्य भूमि है, तो वो इस स्कीम में अनुदान प्राप्त करने के लिए पात्र होंगे। 

२. इसके अलावा अनौपचारिक क्षेत्रों में काम कर रहे मज़दूरों के लिए प्रधानमंत्री श्रम  योगी मानधन स्कीम का प्रावधान भी किया गया है।   स्कीम के तहत मज़दूरों को ३००० रुपये महीने की पेंशन सुनिश्चित की जाएगी बशर्ते की वो ६० साल की उम्र तक हर महीने एक राशि इस योजना में जमा करते रहें।  २९ साल के मज़दूर के लिए ३००० महीने की पेंशन प्राप्त करने के लिए यह राशि लगभग १०० रुपये महीना होगी, जो की उस व्यक्ति को ६० वर्ष की उम्र तक हर महीने भरने होंगे।    

आपको यह लेख कैसा लगा, ऐसी टिप्पणी नीचे कमेंट बॉक्स में जरूर दें। 

कृपया लेख को नीचे दिए गए लिंक से विभिन्न माध्यमों में शेयर करें।    

Monday, 28 January 2019

SSC JE 2019


Staff Selection Commission has recently announced the notification for Junior Engineer Examination 2018. 

Relevant Details are as follows :- 

Last Date to Apply 25-02-2019

Complete Notification will be available on the Website from 1 Feb 2019 onwards. 

Exam Date has already been published in the Annual Exam Calender of SSC. 

Click Here to Check the Cutoff of SSC JE 2017. 

Click Here for Exam Paper of SSC JE 2017. 

All other details will be posted here very soon. Stay Tuned. 

Comment your requirements in the Comment Section Below. 

Monday, 21 January 2019



The Consumer of the Farm products like Millets (बाजरा ) are very much concerned about the pesticides being used in the crops by the farmers. The growing population of doctors are further adding the fuels in this concern. The Urban Middle Class is therefore searching for the organic foods in the Local Market. However the confidence that the product is 100 % organic is still missing. Consumers have doubts that they are paying for the organic products and in return getting normal products. 

However a new Kind of relationship between farmers and end consumers is now emerging out thanks to the NGOs like Deccan Development Society. 

Click Here to Read More About the NGOs :- 

What are the key points of this Beyond Organic Movement ? 

1. Movement is limited to the Areas around Hyderabad as of now. 

2. Around 100 Consumers are participating in the movement Currently. 

3. Participants are asked to invest around 12500 to 25000 Rs beforehand in the farms of the concerned farmers. 

4. Farmers will give them a List of around 30 Farm Products to choose from as per choice. 

5. Farmers will give the products to the end consumers in proportion of respective investment of the consumer. 

6. In this way farmers get an interest free sum for farming and consumers get the product directly from them. Hence model is a win win situation for all. 

Further Reading :- 
  • Consumer invest in organic Farms,
  • Farm to Fork : A Consumer Farmer Compact show the way,
  • Deccan Development Society, 

Thank you Very Much for reading, Kindly comment in the section below for your feed back. 

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